Biokinetics Services During Lock-down.

The purpose of the lock-down in South Africa is to promote social distancing by enforcing isolation. The lock-down is intended to limit the spread of the virus and to prepare the health system to cope with the increased demand on resources.

Biokineticists are registered medical professionals with the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA). Registered HPCSA medical professionals fall into the “essential services” category during lock-down. As a result biokineticists may treat patients that are in need of assistance provided that i) the treatment is in the patient’s best interest, ii) the lack of treatment (withdrawal of treatment) would have a deleterious effect on the patient’s health and well-being, and iii) the treatment would not bring the health of the greater community into jeopardy.

Unfortunately there will never be a “business-as-usual” scenario. Biokineticists, however, are allowed to use their clinical judgement with regards to the patients they treat. Face-to-face consultations should be reserved for individuals who require essential treatment to assist with their condition / prevent their condition from getting worse. Other patients are encouraged to use telehealth wherever possible.

In the event that your condition warrants a face-to-face consultation then the biokineticist is required to adhere to strict principles that ensure your safety. Safety directives and protocols issued by the Minister of Health, the National and Provincial Departments of Health or any other South African healthcare authority will need to be followed.

In summary, there needs to be an assessment of the risk-benefit ratio during the COVID-19 lock-down. Only patients that would be negatively affected by the lack of direct supervision can be seen for face-to-face biokinetics sessions. Telehealth biokinetics sessions are recommended for all other scenarios.

Terms and conditions apply: COVID-19 Informed Consent Document

Pre-screening questions: Phone triage


If you would like more information about biokinetics or would like to make a booking please fill in the contact form below.

Biokineticist Cape Town

Biokinetics Cape Town

Biokinetics training sessions following the COVID-19 lockdown in South Africa.

Feel free to get in touch if you would like to book a biokinetics training session.

Trail Running Exercises

Neil Hopkins Biokineticist Trail Running Exercises

Trail running in Cape Town:

Cape Town has some of the most magnificent trail running routes, and trail runners in Cape Town are spoiled for choice. From Table Mountain and Tokai (Silvermine), to Somerset West, Franschoek, Paarl and Stellenbosch and further afield towards the Cederberg and Matroosberg regions. There are trails for all levels of ability (technical single track for advanced runners and jeep track for beginners) which is why the sport has boomed over the last few years. There is also healthy trail running competition with numerous trail running races on the calendar (check out or

Trail running and your body:

Anecdotally trail running is often seen as kinder on your body when it comes to overuse injuries. It is believed that there is a greater risk of overuse injury (eg: Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome) with road running and more acute injury (eg: Lateral Ankle Sprain) risk with trail running. However, not all trail runners sustain injuries and if they do they are not always acute injuries. A discussion on the detail surrounding the types of injuries and the mechanisms involved are not part of the scope of this post, but if you would like more information here are a few journal papers of interest:

Many trail runners actually present with overuse injuries as a result of overload. Overload has many guises: too much too soon, too far too soon, too fast too soon, too steep too soon, etc. The concept of “too much” can be manged with better planning, better conditioning and a bit of patience. It is seen as the “Goldilocks principle” you need to find balance (from the story of Goldilocks – not too hot, not too cold, it is just right) . As a trail runner you need to find the amount of volume and intensity that is “just right”. This is done through correct training and the proper planning of your training calendar.

Neil Hopkins Trail Running Biokinetics

Cross training for trail running:

Adding in some cross training in the gym, or at home, can compliment your trail running. Cross training is not meant to be a substitute for running but rather as a means of cross conditioning and balancing your body.  As a trail runner you can join a local gym to take advantage of the cardio and strength training equipment, as well as the pool for  your recovery days. The reality is that not many trail runners enjoy the confines of a gym but the reward can be worth it. From stronger legs for the hills, a more resilient back and knees for the downhills, and enhanced cardio for the endurance.

From a home routine perspective there can be some simple exercises that you can add to your trail running tool kit. These can easily be done at home as part of a daily routine. These five essential exercises can help improve your trail running and keep you more “balanced” as a trail runner:

  1. Quad stretch
  2. Adductor stretch
  3. Hamstring strength
  4. Single leg “dead lift”
  5. Ankle stability

Click on an image for a description of the exercise.


If you would like to download a copy of these exercises as a PDF please click here: Trail Running Exercises

Biokinetics sports conditioning and injury management for trail running:

The exercises above are pretty generic and are not designed to make you invincible. They are a value-add to compliment your trail running programme. If you have an injury, or if you feel that you need a more comprehensive programme and a face-to-face consultation then you should reach out and make an appointment with a professional in your area. You can make an appointment with a physiotherapist or biokineticist in your area to discuss your injury concerns.

If you would like to make a booking or if you want to find out more information on biokinetics please feel free to complete the information below:


Neil Hopkins Biokineticist Cape Town Trail Running Exercises

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Online Biokinetics Consultations

Neil Hopkins Biokineticist Consultations Online Biokinetics


Telehealth and telerehabilitation for the COVID-19 lock-down.

South Africa went into a COVID-19 lock-down on 26 March 2020, following a directive from President Cyril Ramaphosa. The lock-down period prevents non-essential medical professionals from working with patients in a face-to-face context. However, the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) has modified the online consultation guidelines to allow practitioners to consult with new, and existing, patients using telehealth. Telehealth in this context includes “telerehabilitation” by means of end-to-end  encrypted video messaging. These digital consultations will only be allowed during the COVID-19 lock-down, and allegedly will revert to the pre-lock-down guidelines as soon as the Presidential directive ends.

If you are feeling confined during the lock-down and want to work on unresolved injuries, then a telehealth consultation followed by some telerehabilitation could be a solution for you. This lock-down period may actually provide you with an ideal opportunity to work on any unresolved injury issues or give you a chance to improve your physical health. Doing some exercise rehabilitation may also provide you with a means of killing boredom and maintaining your sanity.

If you are injured, or want to work on your physical health, you can contact a biokineticst or physiotherapist in your area. Otherwise reach out to a physiotherapist or biokineticist that you have a good working relationship with to see if they are offering online consultations. If you are not a suitable candidate for telehealth, or telerehabilitation, you will be asked to wait until after the lock-down has ended, or referred on for a face-to-face consultation if your condition is serious and warrants immediate care.

Stay healthy. Stay safe. Stay at home.

Neil Hopkins Biokineticist Cape Town Telerehabilitation


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Lower back pain core stability

Low back pain: Balancing mobility and stability

The title image of this post is an artists’ rendition of Philippe Petit’s 1974 high-wire walk between the previous Twin Towers of New York’s World Trade Center. Petit wrote a book: “To Reach the Clouds”, which was later release in paperback under the title “Man on Wire”.

The relevance of this image to this post cannot be understated. Petit’s unrivaled feat of balance and stability is an undisputed display that stability comes from control of movement, not the prevention of it. Philippe Petit would never have achieved his walk between the towers if he had been rigid. Faced with upwinds, crosswinds and a moving wire he had to use a dynamic approach to balance. He was so well poised that he was even able to lie down on the wire at the half way point. To watch his amazing achievement, and the beautiful dance on the wire you can watch it on the 2008 film Man on Wire.

Paul Hodges on balancing mobility and stability:

Paul Hodges is a Professor at the University of Queensland with over 520 research items listed on Researchgate.  He is well respected with over twenty-three thousand citations. His main area of focus is listed as “Neuromotor control of movement and stability, and changes in this system with pain”.

Current themes that Professor Hodges is working on:

  • Physiology and pathophysiology of movement control mechanisms.
  • Integration of neuroscience and biomechanics to investigate the nervous system control of joint stability and movement.
  • Effect of conflicting task demands control on spinal control.
  • Biomechanical effect of contraction of the intrinsic spinal muscles on stability of the spine.
  • The effect of pain on motor control and possible mechanisms.
  • Mechanism of efficacy of therapeutic exercise.

Paul Hodges was recently interviewed by Dr Karim Kahn of the British Journal of Sports Medicine for a BJSM Google hangout: Paul Hodges on BJSM

The summary of this interview:

According to Paul Hodges there are three major misconceptions with regards to “core stability”:
1) Misconception: It is all about stiffness
2) Misconception: It is all about one muscle (or a select handful of muscles)
3) Misconception: There is a one size fits all approach to fixing back pain

Reality 1: It is about dynamic control.

Different tasks place different demands on the body. Some movements require more stiffness/bracing while others require more fluidity. The dynamic control for weight lifting for example is different to the dynamic control of running. Weight lifting may require more stiffness, while the same level of stiffness applied to running would be detrimental to performance, and may lead to injury.

Dynamic control is therefore the control of movement relative to task, rather than the prevention of it.  Too many pseudo-core routines are designed around rigidity, stiffness and the prevention of movement. A plank is a prime example. Thousands, if not millions, of planks are performed annually with the belief that they are core-centric. However, a plank is not a core stability exercise, it is a pain tolerance exercise. Planks are terminated after a set time limit or due to pain in the shoulders/lower back.  They are not terminated due to core fatigue or loss of stability.

Reality 2: The body is a complex system of neuro-muscular-skeletal interactions.

There is more to the body than just one muscle or a select group of muscles. A number of paradigms promote the training / re-training of the Transversus Abdominus, which has been shown to be an important muscle for stability of the torso. It is hypothesised that the Transversus Abdominus achieves this by increasing its thickness and consequently the intra-abdominal pressure. However, it is one muscle. It is a local stabiliser, that is believed to fatigue quickly, and does not produce movement. It is therefore part of the puzzle, not the only piece. Countless patient hours are devoted to this muscle (along with Multifidus) using motor control exercises (precise movements aimed at “isolating” the muscles) at the expense of general exercise (cardio / weights / flexibility).

Reality 3: There is no one size fits all.

No two patients are the same. Some back cases may have similar signs and symptoms  but the human being experiencing the back pain is unique and needs to have a unique case management. Too often the approach is a one size fits all. In a best case scenario a patient should be given a bespoke exercise programme tailor made to their individual injury needs, goals and lifestyle.

The problem with the term “core”:

We have a problem in the rehabilitation/fitness industry: an obsession with the term “core”. The word core is reductionist in itself. It should be core + stability = core stability. In actual fact it is the stability component that should get the emphasis, not just the core.  Stability of the body is not derived from one particular system or isolated area of the anatomy. Nothing in the human body works in isolation. It is a “symphony” of Newtons 3rd law: action and reaction.




Medical professionals, trainers and the media have created a nervous condition involving a misinformed belief system that there is a catastrophic lack of spinal stability, and the only remedy is to “fix” the “core”. This paranoia can be conceptualised as a Corexia-nervousa or Core-dysmorphic-disorder .  Even though most patients have limited concept of what the core is anatomically, they know that they have to have one. It is like a magical unicorn, or pot of gold at the end of a rainbow.

We have created a generation of patients that believe that the centre of their back pain problem is due only to the lack of “core”. Their misconstrued philosophy is that the more core they do the better they will be. Unfortunately, there is never enough core in their minds. And if you do not give them core, the patient believes that their back will be left vulnerable. The tragedy of this scenario is that the seed of this misinformation is often planted by a medical professional. The spine is hugely resilient. It is not a dry twig waiting to snap at a moment’s notice.

Evidence against the “Corexia” / lack-of-core paradigm exists, but patients and practitioners choose to ignore it.  If you listen to Dr Fiona Wilson on the following soundcloud interview (Treating low back pain in sport: Dr Fiona Wilson. ) you will hear how some patient population groups have a direct correlation between amount of time spent on core, and back pain. What on earth does that mean?: it means that the more core training that this particular patient group performed the more likely they were to experience back pain. This can be attributed to both volume but also the type of exercise included in a core routine. Clearly we are getting it wrong! Lack of “core” is not the problem.

Advancing with the times:

If you are shoved into a generic Pilates class or force-fed the same tired dogma of “core” it is time for a change.  It is important to read wider than just the echo chamber of core and Pilates posts in your local magazine or Facebook feed. If you need bespoke exercise advice, seek out a Biokineticist / Physiotherapist with special interest in low back rehabilitation, but do not settle for mediocrity. Science has evolved and the Biokineticist / Physiotherapist that claims to be current and up to date with best practice needs to give you way more than just core. Like Phillipe Petit on his wire, you need a dynamic approach to your movement.

Paul Hodges BJSM interview with Karim Khan:
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Image: PsyPost